Type 1 diabetes

Diabetes type Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes
Characteristics Insulin-dependent
Young subjects (under 30 years old)
Thin subject
Auto-immune disease
Elderly subject (over 40 years old)
Obese, sedentary subject
Family history of diabetes
(genetic factor)
Proportion 10% of diabetes 90% des diabètes
Start Strong Insidious
Symptoms and manifestations Cardinal syndrome
– polyuria (excessive urination)
– polydipsia (excessive thirst)
– polyphagia (increased appetite)
– weight loss
– intense asthenia (physical fatigue)Other signs:
– bad breath
Often asymptomatic and discovered by chance with delayed diagnosis (over 5 years)
Clinical symptoms during glycaemia > 3g/l  chronic hyperglycaemia (click)
Presence of 30 to 40% of complications at the time of diagnosis
Laboratory diagnosis Fasting glucose test > 1.26 g/l
Glycosuria test (sugar level in urine )
Ketonuria test (ketone bodies in urine )
Search for antibodies that are immune markers (Anti-GAD antibodies and anti-IA2)
Low or no ketonuria
Search for hyperglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia
Additional workup Search for complications by tests: ophthalmologic, dental, cardiovascular, neurological, nephrology
Prevention No specific prevention Weight control with limitation of ponderal overload

Nutrition and hygiene rules (balanced diet, physical activity).

Screening if risk factors are present (age > 40 years, android obesity, sedentarity, family history of diabetes, history of foetal macrosomia).

Medication (if applicable)

For further information For further information about Type 1 diabetes For further information about Type 2 diabetes

Further information about Type 1 diabetes

In the beginning, Type 1 diabetes does not cause any symptom, as the pancreas remains partially functional. The disease only becomes apparent when 80 to 90% of the pancreatic cells that produce insulin have been destroyed.

In fact, individuals with Type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin at all due to an autoimmune reaction that partially or entirely destroys beta cells of the pancreas. The role of these cells is to synthesise insulin, vital for the body to use blood sugar as a source of energy. In this type of diabetes, it is absolutely necessary to take insulin regularly, hence the name that is often attributed to it: insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD).

 The causes

The exact causes of the appearance of Type 1 diabetes remain unknown. Some people inherit a predisposition to the disease. Nevertheless, we find family histories of Type 1 diabetes in less than 10% of cases. This means that it is also likely that the disease results from a series of genetic and environmental factors.

All the more so, as it increasingly appears at an earlier age, with a significant increase in children under 5 years old. These developments remain unexplained to date, but changes in the environment and its interaction with the genome come under close scrutiny: viral infection rate, increase in the age of maternity, diet and exposure to toxins.

Possible complications

In the long-term, Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of several health problems: cardiovascular disease, kidney disorders, loss of sensitivity in the fingers and feet and vision problems that may include blindness.